Table of Contents

Gaslighting: Signs, Effects, How to Respond & Heal


Clinically Reviewed by: Dr. Robin Campbell, LMFT, PHD

Signs You Might Be Gaslighting

Welcome to our latest blog series, where we delve into the subtle yet profound realm of psychological manipulation, focusing on one of its most insidious forms: gaslighting. This manipulative tactic can undermine your sense of reality, making you question your memories, perceptions, and sanity. Often occurring in personal relationships, professional environments, and even within families, gaslighting is a psychological strategy used to gain power over someone else by distorting their reality.

Throughout this series, we will explore the key signs that you might be experiencing or even inadvertently engaging in gaslighting. From the subtle dismissal of your experiences to outright denial of events that have happened, understanding these signs is crucial for maintaining your mental health and relationship integrity. Whether you’re concerned about being manipulated or are worried about unconsciously manipulating others, this blog will provide you with insights and tools to identify and address this behavior. Join us as we unpack the complexities of gaslighting, aiming to empower you with knowledge and strategies to foster healthier interactions.

What is Gaslighting?

Gaslighting is a form of psychological manipulation in which a person or a group covertly sows seeds of doubt in a targeted individual or group, making them question their own memory, perception, or sanity. The term originates from the 1938 stage play Gas Light, and its subsequent film adaptations, in which a husband manipulates his wife into believing she is losing her sanity by dimming the gas-powered lights in their home and then denying that the light has changed when his wife points it out.

Key Characteristics of Gaslighting:

  • Denial of Reality: The gaslighter will blatantly deny or distort factual information, insisting that events occurred differently from how they really happened, effectively causing the victim to doubt their memory or perception.
  • Isolation: Often, the manipulator will isolate the victim from others who might support the victim’s perspective, making the victim more dependent on the gaslighter for validation of reality.
  • Withholding Information: The gaslighter may pretend not to understand a request or refuse to listen to the victim, dismissing conversations about the victim’s concerns as irrational or imaginary.
  • Trivializing Feelings: This involves making the victim feel their feelings are not important or unreasonable, often suggesting that they are overly sensitive or unhinged.
  • Using Affection as a Weapon: The manipulator may occasionally treat the victim very positively, then revert to manipulation, creating an emotional dependency in the victim.

Effects of Gaslighting:

Gaslighting can be extremely damaging, leading to confusion, anxiety, depression, and a loss of self-esteem. Victims may become overly dependent on the abuser for their sense of reality and self-worth, leading to a cycle of abuse that can be difficult to break.

Recognizing gaslighting is the first step toward getting help. Understanding that the manipulation isn’t a reflection of one’s own mental instability but rather a deliberate tactic can empower victims to seek support and reclaim their reality.


Common Signs of Gaslighting

1. Second-Guessing Yourself

You constantly doubt your ability to remember details correctly, often questioning your memory or sanity. You feel the need to apologize frequently for what you do or who you are, believing you are overly sensitive or mistaken in your perceptions or recollections.

2. Feeling Confused or Crazy

The manipulator’s actions and words may make you feel like you are losing your mind. You might find yourself feeling disoriented and unsure about what is true and what isn’t.

3. Difficulty Making Decisions

Due to the erosion of your self-confidence, you might find it hard to trust your judgment on even simple choices. You may feel dependent on the gaslighter to confirm your decisions or reality.

4. Withholding Information from Others

You hesitate to speak out or tell others about events or conversations because you fear others will judge you or side with the gaslighter, or that you won’t be believed.

5. Knowing Something is Terribly Wrong, But Can’t Express It

You feel something is wrong but can’t pinpoint what or why. When you attempt to explain the unease or the dynamics to someone else, you struggle to find the right words or clarity.

6. Lying to Avoid the Put Down and Reality Twists

You start lying to the manipulator or others to avoid being gaslighted or to prevent confrontation and manipulation. This is often a defense mechanism to maintain some sense of peace or to protect one’s perception of reality.

7. Feeling Isolated and Alone

The gaslighter may isolate you from friends and family, or you may isolate yourself due to feelings of shame or confusion about your thoughts and feelings. Isolation can amplify the effects of gaslighting.

8. Frequent Apologies

You find yourself apologizing all the time for what you do or who you are, apologizing even when you truly believe you did nothing wrong.

9. Feeling Worthless or Inadequate

The constant criticism and doubt can lead you to feel incompetent and unworthy, significantly impacting your self-esteem.

10. Changes in Your Perception of Reality

You notice significant shifts in your perception of your reality. You may start accepting the manipulator’s versions of events or conversations, even when these contradict your own experiences.

Recognizing these signs can be the first step toward addressing the situation and seeking help. If you identify with these signs, it might be helpful to talk to a mental health professional who can offer support and strategies to deal with the manipulation and restore your sense of reality and self-esteem.

How can you tell if you are gaslighting someone?

Signs you might be gaslighting include frequently dismissing others’ feelings, insisting your version of events is the only truth, often correcting people’s memories of events, and feeling the need to control conversations and relationships.


What should you do if you realize you are gaslighting someone?

Acknowledge the behavior, consider its impacts, and seek professional help to understand and change your actions. Open, honest communication with the affected person is also crucial.


How do you confront someone who is gaslighting you?

Approach the situation with clear examples of the behavior, stick to the facts, and express how the actions affect you. It’s often helpful to have this conversation in the presence of a neutral third party, such as a therapist.


What are effective ways to respond to gaslighting?

Maintain a record of events as they happen, seek support from friends or professionals who can validate your experiences, set clear boundaries with the gaslighter, and prioritize your mental health.


Can relationships involving gaslighting be saved?

This depends on the willingness of the gaslighter to acknowledge the behavior and seek help. Both parties must be committed to honest communication and therapeutic intervention. In some cases, particularly where there is unwillingness to change, it may be healthier to end the relationship.

What Causes a Person to Gaslight?

Gaslighting is a complex behavior that stems from a variety of psychological and interpersonal factors. Understanding the causes behind why a person might engage in gaslighting can provide insights into their motives and help address the underlying issues. Here are some common reasons why individuals may resort to this manipulative behavior:

1. Desire for Power and Control

One of the primary motivations for gaslighting is the desire to gain control over another person. By undermining someone’s perception of reality, the gaslighter can dominate and manipulate them, often to maintain control in a relationship, whether personal, professional, or familial.

2. Insecurity

Ironically, while gaslighters seek to undermine the confidence of their victims, their own deep-seated insecurities are often a driving force behind their actions. By making others feel weak or unstable, they boost their own sense of superiority and distract from their vulnerabilities.

3. Projection of Own Faults

Gaslighters may project their own undesirable traits onto others. If they feel guilty or inadequate in some way, they might accuse others of these feelings or behaviors to deflect attention from themselves and to cope with their own issues.

4. Lack of Empathy

A significant lack of empathy can lead someone to manipulate others without guilt or remorse. This trait is often seen in narcissistic personality disorder or other personality disorders where empathy is diminished.

5. Learned Behavior

Some individuals learn manipulative behaviors from their environments. If a person grew up in a family where gaslighting behaviors were normal, they might not recognize these actions as abusive or destructive and continue to use them in their own relationships.

6. Avoiding Responsibility

Gaslighting can be a tactic to avoid taking responsibility for one’s actions. By altering another person’s reality, gaslighters can avoid confrontation, blame, or the consequences of their behavior.

7. To Conceal Wrongdoing

Individuals might use gaslighting to hide their wrongful actions. By confusing the other person, they can evade accountability and continue their misconduct without being challenged or caught.

8. Fear of Vulnerability

Some gaslighters engage in this behavior out of a fear of vulnerability. By keeping others off-balance, they feel they can protect themselves from being hurt or having their flaws exposed.

Understanding these motivations is crucial for addressing and potentially resolving situations involving gaslighting. It’s important for victims of gaslighting to recognize these dynamics and seek professional help, not only to protect themselves but also to address the root causes of the behavior in their relationships. Therapy can be beneficial for both parties, helping the victim recover from the abuse and the perpetrator to understand and change their manipulative behaviors.

Accidental Gaslighting

Accidental gaslighting occurs when someone unintentionally causes another person to doubt their reality, memories, or perceptions, often due to misunderstandings or poor communication. Unlike deliberate gaslighting, it’s not meant to manipulate or harm. 

Here are ways to address it:

  • Improve Communication: Actively listen and validate the other person’s feelings and experiences.
  • Seek Clarification: Ask questions to understand their perspective better.
  • Share Gently: Use “I” statements to share your viewpoint without dismissing theirs.
  • Reflect and Apologize: Recognize if you’ve caused doubt, apologize, and clarify your intentions.
  • Encourage Dialogue: Foster open communication where differing perspectives are respected.

By being mindful and empathetic, you can reduce the risk of accidental gaslighting and build healthier, more respectful relationships.


Are Certain People Predisposed to Gaslighting?

Yes, certain individuals may be more predisposed to engage in gaslighting behavior due to a combination of personality traits, past experiences, and possibly underlying psychological conditions. Here are some factors that might make a person more likely to gaslight others:

1. Personality Disorders

Individuals with certain personality disorders, especially Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), may be more prone to gaslighting. Traits associated with these disorders, such as a lack of empathy, a strong need for dominance, and emotional volatility, can facilitate manipulative behaviors, including gaslighting.

2. History of Manipulation or Abuse

People who have been exposed to manipulative behaviors, either as victims or observers, during their formative years may learn to use these tactics as normal interaction patterns. This learned behavior can be a coping mechanism or a modeled way of gaining control over situations and people.

3. Low Self-Esteem and Insecurity

Individuals with low self-esteem may resort to gaslighting as a way to feel more secure or superior. By undermining someone else’s reality, they temporarily boost their own confidence or divert attention from their perceived shortcomings.

4. Need for Control

Some personalities have an intense need to control their environment and the people in it. Gaslighting can be a strategy to maintain this control, especially in relationships, by diminishing the other person’s confidence and self-worth.

5. Fear of Vulnerability

People who fear emotional vulnerability or intimacy might use gaslighting to keep others at a psychological distance. By creating confusion and doubt, they avoid exposing their true selves and maintain an upper hand in emotional interactions.

6. Antisocial Behavior

Individuals with antisocial traits or tendencies might engage in gaslighting as part of a broader pattern of deceit and manipulation. This behavior aligns with their disregard for others’ rights and feelings.

7. Projection

A person who is uncomfortable with their own feelings or actions may project these onto others. Gaslighting is a way to deflect responsibility and attribute their negative traits or actions to someone else, thereby escaping accountability.

8. Power Dynamics

In environments where power imbalances exist, such as between a boss and an employee, a parent and child, or in certain intimate relationships, the more dominant individual might use gaslighting to exploit or reinforce their authoritative position.

Understanding these predispositions can help in identifying potential gaslighting situations early and taking steps to address them. It’s important for individuals who recognize these traits in themselves to seek professional help to understand and modify their behavior. For those on the receiving end, recognizing these signs can be crucial in seeking support and protecting oneself from psychological harm.


How Do You Deal with a Gaslighter?

Dealing with someone who is gaslighting you can be challenging and emotionally draining. It’s important to approach the situation with care and to prioritize your own mental health. Here are some strategies to effectively handle situations where you’re being gaslighted:

1. Recognize the Behavior

The first step is to identify that what you’re experiencing is gaslighting. Key signs include feeling confused about your reality, frequently second-guessing yourself, feeling like you can’t do anything right, or that you’re always to blame in your relationship.

2. Keep a Record

Start documenting interactions and conversations. This can help you keep track of the facts and support your memory when someone attempts to distort reality. Having a written record can be a grounding reference point to confirm your experiences.

3. Seek External Validation

Reach out to trusted friends, family members, or a mental health professional. Discuss your experiences with them to get an outside perspective. Others can provide confirmation and support, helping you trust your own perceptions and feelings.

4. Set Boundaries

Determine what behavior you will and will not tolerate. Be clear about these boundaries with the gaslighter. If they continue the behavior, enforce the consequences, which might include reducing contact or ending conversations when gaslighting occurs.

5. Stay Calm and Focused

When you discuss the issue with the gaslighter, stay calm and stick to the facts. Avoid getting pulled into emotional turmoil. It might help to rehearse what you want to say or to have key points written down.

6. Focus on Self-care

Dealing with manipulation can be exhausting. Engage in activities that strengthen your mental and emotional well-being. This might include exercise, hobbies, socializing with supportive friends, or meditation.

7. Avoid Arguing About the Gaslighting

Arguing with a gaslighter about their behavior can often prove futile, as they may use the opportunity to manipulate the conversation further. Instead, state your perspective once and disengage from circular conversations.

8. Consider Professional Help

A therapist can offer valuable support and strategies for dealing with manipulation. If the gaslighting continues or affects your mental health, it may be necessary to seek professional counseling to help navigate the situation.

9. Evaluate the Relationship

Reflect on the relationship dynamics. If gaslighting is a recurring strategy, consider if the relationship is healthy or sustainable. Sometimes, distancing yourself from the relationship is necessary to protect your mental health.

10. Educate Yourself

Learning more about gaslighting and psychological manipulation can empower you to handle interactions more effectively and protect yourself from future instances.

Dealing with gaslighting requires strength and resilience. Remember, you have the right to a relationship based on respect and truth. If the situation doesn’t improve, prioritizing your well-being is not only important—it’s necessary.


Treatment Options for Gaslighting

Treating the effects of gaslighting involves a multi-faceted approach that addresses both the psychological impact on victims and, where possible, the behavior of the gaslighters themselves. Here are some comprehensive treatment options:

For the Victims of Gaslighting:

Individual Therapy:

  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): CBT helps victims challenge distorted thoughts and perceptions, rebuild self-esteem, and develop healthier thinking patterns.
  • Trauma-Informed Therapy: Therapies such as EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) can be effective for those who have experienced trauma as a result of gaslighting.
  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT): DBT can help individuals manage intense emotions, improve interpersonal relationships, and enhance distress tolerance.

Support Groups:

  • Joining support groups, either in-person or online, can provide a safe space to share experiences and gain validation and support from others who have faced similar situations.

Education and Awareness:

  • Learning about gaslighting and its tactics can empower victims to recognize manipulation and affirm their experiences and perceptions.

Building a Support Network:

  • Strengthening connections with trusted friends and family members can provide emotional support and counteract the isolation often caused by gaslighting.

Journaling and Documentation:

  • Keeping a journal or record of events and interactions can help victims trust their memories and perceptions, and provide evidence if needed for discussions or therapy.

Self-Care Practices:

  • Engaging in activities that promote mental and physical well-being, such as exercise, meditation, and hobbies, can help rebuild self-esteem and resilience.

For the Perpetrators of Gaslighting:

Acknowledgment and Self-Reflection: Recognizing and admitting to the behavior is the first step. This often requires self-reflection and feedback from others.


Individual Therapy: A therapist can help uncover the underlying issues driving the behavior, such as insecurity, past trauma, or a need for control, and develop healthier ways of relating to others.

Couples or Family Therapy: If gaslighting occurs within a relationship or family, joint therapy sessions can address the dynamics and promote healthier communication and interaction patterns.

Education and Behavior Change: Learning about the harmful effects of gaslighting can motivate change. Perpetrators can benefit from education on empathy, emotional regulation, and healthy relationship skills.

Anger Management and Stress Reduction: For some, gaslighting behaviors may be linked to poor anger management or high stress. Programs focused on these areas can help reduce the tendency to manipulate others.


General Strategies:

Establishing Boundaries:

  • Both victims and perpetrators can benefit from setting and respecting clear boundaries in relationships to promote healthy interactions.

Ongoing Support and Check-Ins:

  • Regular check-ins with a therapist or support group can help maintain progress and provide continued guidance and affirmation.

Legal and Safety Measures:

  • In severe cases where gaslighting leads to significant emotional or physical harm, legal measures such as restraining orders or seeking a safe environment may be necessary.

Addressing gaslighting requires a commitment to understanding and changing deeply ingrained patterns. With appropriate support and interventions, both victims and perpetrators can work towards healthier, more respectful relationships.



In wrapping up our exploration of the subtle yet destructive world of gaslighting, it’s crucial to recognize and confront this behavior, both in ourselves and in interactions with others. This series has shed light on the major signs of gaslighting, such as denying another’s reality, manipulating memories, and trivializing feelings, which are telltale indicators that this toxic dynamic is at play. Understanding these signs is the first step toward dismantling the patterns that underpin such interactions and moving towards healthier, more respectful communication.

Whether you’ve caught yourself dismissing someone’s emotions as overreactions, insisting your recollection of events is the only possible truth, or frequently making someone doubt their sanity, awareness is the key to change. For those who may find themselves on either side of this dynamic, the path forward involves open acknowledgment, a commitment to personal growth, and often, professional guidance to navigate the complexities of such deeply ingrained behaviors.

As we close this discussion, remember that identifying and addressing gaslighting is not just about healing individual relationships—it’s about fostering a broader culture of empathy, respect, and psychological safety. By staying vigilant against these behaviors and promoting honest, supportive interactions, we not only improve our personal relationships but contribute to a healthier, more empathetic society. If you recognize these signs in your interactions, take courageous steps to seek understanding and change. The journey towards improved communication and respect in relationships is challenging but deeply rewarding.


Seeking Treatment? We Can Help!

At New Hope Healthcare, as an in-network provider we work with most insurance plans, such as:


If you or a loved one are struggling with mental health challenges or substance abuse, reach out to New Hope Healthcare today. Our team of compassionate professionals is here to support your journey towards lasting well-being. Give us a call at 866-799-0806


Frequently Asked Questions

NPD is a mental disorder characterized by an inflated sense of self-importance, a deep need for excessive attention and admiration, troubled relationships, and a lack of empathy for others.
NPD is diagnosed based on criteria listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which includes symptoms such as grandiosity, seeking excessive admiration, and a lack of empathy.
The exact cause of narcissism is not known, but it is believed to be a complex combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors including childhood experiences such as excessive pampering, extremely high expectations, abuse or neglect.
Yes, narcissism can be treated with psychotherapy, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy. However, treatment is challenging as narcissists often do not see their condition as a problem.
Key signs include a grandiose sense of self, a preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, a sense of entitlement, exploitativeness, frequent envy or belief that others are envious of them, and arrogant behavior.

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