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Helping Loved Ones with Cognitive Dissonance: A Practical Guide

Cognitive Dissonance

Clinically Reviewed by: Dr. Robin Campbell, LMFT, PHD

Cognitive Dissonance

In the fascinating realm of social psychology, the theory of cognitive dissonance, first introduced by Leon Festinger, explores the psychological tension experienced when a person holds conflicting beliefs or engages in behavior that contradicts their values. This theory delves into how people cope with the discomfort felt when their cognition is inconsistent. Whether it’s an honest person feeling guilty after telling a lie, or someone who values health but continues to smoke, cognitive dissonance is a prevalent part of everyday life. From study participants turning pegs to control groups using obscene words, research on cognitive dissonance reveals its pervasive influence across different situations. This blog aims to unpack the intricacies of cognitive dissonance theory, examining how individuals reduce cognitive dissonance and achieve cognitive consistency through dissonance reduction strategies.

What is Cognitive Dissonance?

Cognitive dissonance is a psychological concept introduced by Leon Festinger in 1957. It refers to the mental discomfort experienced by a person who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, values, or attitudes simultaneously. This discomfort often leads individuals to try to reduce the dissonance, typically by changing one of the conflicting beliefs, acquiring new information that outweighs the dissonant beliefs, or reducing the importance of the conflicting belief.

For instance, a person who values healthy living but smokes cigarettes may experience cognitive dissonance because their behavior (smoking) contradicts their belief (valuing health). To alleviate this discomfort, they might change their belief by convincing themselves that smoking isn’t that harmful, change their behavior by quitting smoking, or downplay the importance of their health in the context of smoking.

The concept of cognitive dissonance is significant because it highlights the lengths to which individuals will go to maintain internal consistency. This theory has been applied in various fields, including psychology, marketing, and politics, to understand how people process information and make decisions. Understanding cognitive dissonance can help explain why people sometimes stick to their beliefs despite contrary evidence, and why they might resist change even when it appears beneficial.


Causes of Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive dissonance arises from several causes, primarily revolving around conflicting beliefs, values, or behaviors. Here are the main causes:

  1. Conflicting Beliefs or Attitudes: When an individual holds two or more contradictory beliefs or attitudes, cognitive dissonance can occur. For example, believing in environmental conservation but frequently using plastic products can create dissonance.
  2. Conflicting Behaviors and Beliefs: This occurs when there is a discrepancy between a person’s actions and their beliefs. For instance, someone who considers themselves honest but lies in a situation may experience cognitive dissonance.
  3. New Information: Receiving information that conflicts with existing beliefs can cause cognitive dissonance. For example, a person who believes in a specific dietary regimen might experience dissonance when presented with evidence that contradicts the health benefits of that diet.
  4. Decision-Making: Making choices, especially significant ones, can lead to cognitive dissonance. After making a decision, people often feel dissonance because they fear they might have made the wrong choice. This is common in consumer behavior, where post-purchase dissonance can occur after buying a costly item.
  5. Effort Justification: When people put significant effort into achieving a goal, they may experience dissonance if the outcome is not as rewarding as expected. To reduce this dissonance, they might convince themselves that the effort was worthwhile.
  6. Social Pressure: Social norms and peer pressure can cause cognitive dissonance. For example, conforming to a group’s behavior that conflicts with one’s personal beliefs can lead to dissonance.
  7. Moral Dilemmas: Situations that challenge a person’s ethical or moral standards can lead to cognitive dissonance. For example, feeling torn between telling the truth and protecting someone’s feelings can create a dissonant state.


Understanding these causes helps in recognizing why people experience discomfort in certain situations and how they might attempt to resolve it to achieve mental consistency.


Common Types of Cognitive Dissonance

  1. Post-Decision Dissonance: This type occurs after making a significant decision. After choosing one option over others, individuals might experience regret or second-guess their choice, leading to dissonance. For example, after buying an expensive item, a person might wonder if they made the right choice.
  2. Belief Disconfirmation: When new information contradicts existing beliefs, it creates dissonance. This is common in situations where a person encounters evidence that challenges their deeply held views, such as in scientific discoveries or shifts in societal norms. Acquiring new information can outweigh or reduce the impact of dissonant beliefs. For example, learning about the link between smoking and lung cancer can reduce the dissonance for smokers who previously believed smoking was not harmful.
  3. Effort Justification: This type arises when a person has put a lot of effort into a task or goal and the outcome is not as satisfying as expected. To reduce dissonance, they may convince themselves that the effort was worthwhile. For instance, someone who has undergone a difficult initiation process for a group might justify the effort by overvaluing the group’s importance.
  4. Induced Compliance: This occurs when a person is persuaded to behave in a way that contradicts their beliefs or attitudes. For example, if someone is asked to publicly support a policy they disagree with, they might experience dissonance and later adjust their beliefs to align with their public behavior.
  5. Conflict Between Attitudes and Behaviors: This type of dissonance arises when there is a mismatch between a person’s attitudes and their actions. For instance, a person who values honesty but tells a lie experiences dissonance due to the inconsistency between their behavior and their belief in honesty.
  6. Cognitive Overload: This happens when a person is exposed to too much conflicting information at once, leading to difficulty in processing and reconciling the conflicting data. This is common in the information age, where people are bombarded with diverse and sometimes contradictory information from various sources.
  7. Moral Dissonance: This type occurs when an individual’s actions conflict with their moral or ethical standards. For example, a person who sees themselves as kind and compassionate might experience dissonance if they act in a way that is perceived as cruel or unkind.


Understanding these common types of cognitive dissonance can help in recognizing and addressing the mental discomfort that arises from conflicting beliefs and behaviors, thereby fostering better decision-making and personal growth.


Effects and Risks of Cognitive Dissonance on Mental Health

Short-Term Effects and Risks of Cognitive Dissonance

Emotional Discomfort: In the short term, cognitive dissonance can lead to feelings of discomfort, anxiety, and stress. This emotional turmoil arises from the internal conflict between contradictory beliefs or behaviors.

Decision Paralysis: When faced with conflicting choices or beliefs, individuals might experience difficulty in making decisions, leading to decision paralysis or indecisiveness.

Rationalization: To reduce dissonance quickly, individuals might rationalize their behavior or beliefs, sometimes leading to justifications that are not grounded in reality. Dissonance reduction involves changing attitudes, behavior, beliefs, or employing mental maneuvers to reduce this discomfort.

Avoidance: People may avoid information or situations that increase their dissonance, leading to a lack of exposure to potentially beneficial or corrective experiences.


Long-Term Effects and Risks of Cognitive Dissonance

Behavioral Change: Over time, cognitive dissonance can lead to significant changes in behavior or beliefs as individuals strive to achieve internal consistency. The drive for cognitive consistency can lead individuals to alter their behaviors or beliefs to align with their self-concept and public self-image, reducing dissonance. This can be positive if it leads to healthier or more ethical behaviors.

Psychological Stress: Prolonged exposure to cognitive dissonance can contribute to chronic stress, which can have various negative health impacts, including anxiety disorders and depression.

Impact on Relationships: Persistent dissonance in interpersonal relationships can lead to conflict and strain, potentially harming long-term relationships and social connections.

Self-Esteem Issues: Continuous dissonance can affect an individual’s self-esteem, especially if they consistently feel like they are not living up to their own standards or values.

Cognitive Bias: Long-term cognitive dissonance can reinforce cognitive biases, such as confirmation bias, where individuals selectively focus on information that confirms their beliefs while ignoring contradictory evidence.

Health Implications: Chronic stress from cognitive dissonance can have various health implications, including cardiovascular issues, weakened immune response, and other stress-related illnesses.

Recognizing and addressing cognitive dissonance is important for maintaining mental health and well-being, as well as for fostering personal growth and healthier decision-making processes.


Cognitive dissonance can cause significant anxiety, especially when individuals struggle to reconcile conflicting beliefs or behaviors. This anxiety can be particularly intense in situations where the dissonance is related to important aspects of one’s identity or values. For example, a person who values honesty but frequently lies may experience ongoing anxiety from the dissonance between their actions and their beliefs.


Chronic exposure to cognitive dissonance, especially when it is not resolved, can contribute to feelings of hopelessness and helplessness, which are key features of depression. For instance, constantly feeling like one’s actions do not align with one’s beliefs can lead to a persistent negative self-view, contributing to depressive symptoms.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Individuals with OCD may experience heightened cognitive dissonance due to the conflict between their intrusive thoughts and their desired behaviors or values. This dissonance can drive compulsive behaviors as a way to reduce the discomfort. For example, someone with OCD might perform rituals to alleviate the anxiety caused by dissonant intrusive thoughts.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Survivors of traumatic events may experience cognitive dissonance when their beliefs about the world being safe and just are shattered by their experiences. This dissonance can contribute to the ongoing stress and anxiety characteristic of PTSD. For example, a person who believes in personal safety may experience significant dissonance and distress after a traumatic event that contradicts this belief.

Eating Disorders

Cognitive dissonance is often observed in individuals with eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. The conflict between their self-image, societal standards of beauty, and their behaviors related to food and body image can create significant distress. For instance, a person who values health but engages in harmful eating behaviors might experience ongoing dissonance.

Substance Use Disorders

People struggling with substance use disorders may experience cognitive dissonance between their knowledge of the harmful effects of their substance use and their continued use of the substance. This dissonance can contribute to feelings of guilt, shame, and stress. For example, a person who understands the dangers of drug use but continues to use drugs might experience significant emotional turmoil.

Personality Disorders

In certain personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder, individuals may experience intense cognitive dissonance due to rapid shifts in their self-image, values, and emotions. This can lead to unstable relationships and self-destructive behaviors. For example, a person with borderline personality disorder might experience dissonance between their desire for stable relationships and their impulsive actions that disrupt these relationships.

While cognitive dissonance is not a mental health disorder, its effects on mental well-being are significant. It can contribute to the development or exacerbation of various mental health conditions by increasing stress, anxiety, and emotional turmoil. Addressing cognitive dissonance through therapeutic approaches, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), can help individuals manage the discomfort and reduce the impact on their mental health.


Benefits of Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive dissonance, despite its discomfort, can lead to several positive outcomes by motivating individuals to seek consistency and alignment between their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Here are some benefits:

  1. Personal Growth and Self-Improvement:
    • Motivation for Change: The discomfort from cognitive dissonance can drive individuals to change their behaviors or beliefs, leading to personal growth and self-improvement. For instance, someone who feels dissonance about unhealthy habits may be motivated to adopt a healthier lifestyle.
    • Increased Self-Awareness: Experiencing cognitive dissonance can prompt individuals to reflect on their values and behaviors, increasing self-awareness and leading to more intentional living.
  2. Enhanced Decision-Making:
    • Critical Thinking: To resolve cognitive dissonance, individuals often engage in critical thinking and problem-solving. This process can improve decision-making skills by encouraging a more thorough evaluation of options and consequences.
    • Informed Choices: By seeking information to resolve dissonance, individuals can make more informed and rational choices, aligning their actions more closely with their values and long-term goals.
  3. Behavioral Consistency:
    • Alignment of Actions and Beliefs: Resolving cognitive dissonance often involves aligning behaviors with beliefs. This alignment can lead to greater behavioral consistency, reducing internal conflict and promoting a sense of integrity and authenticity.
    • Commitment to Positive Behaviors: Once individuals adjust their behaviors to resolve dissonance, they are more likely to commit to and maintain these positive behaviors over time.
  4. Improved Relationships:
    • Enhanced Communication: Cognitive dissonance can encourage individuals to communicate openly and honestly to resolve conflicts in relationships. This can lead to better understanding and stronger connections with others.
    • Empathy and Understanding: Understanding the discomfort of cognitive dissonance in oneself can increase empathy towards others experiencing similar conflicts, fostering more supportive and compassionate relationships.
  5. Adaptability and Flexibility:
    • Openness to New Information: To resolve dissonance, individuals often seek out new information and perspectives. This openness can lead to greater adaptability and flexibility in thinking and behavior.
    • Willingness to Change: Experiencing and resolving cognitive dissonance can make individuals more willing to change their beliefs or behaviors in the future, promoting a mindset of continuous learning and adaptation.
  6. Ethical and Moral Development:
    • Reflection on Values: Cognitive dissonance can prompt individuals to reflect on their ethical and moral values, leading to a deeper understanding and commitment to these principles.
    • Moral Behavior: Resolving dissonance related to ethical conflicts can encourage individuals to act in ways that are consistent with their moral values, promoting ethical behavior and decision-making.

How to Diagnose Cognitive Dissonance According to Cognitive Dissonance Theory


  1. Identify Conflicting Beliefs or Behaviors:
    • Reflect on your thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors to identify any contradictions. For example, consider situations where your actions do not align with your stated values or beliefs.
  2. Evaluate Emotional Responses:
    • Notice any feelings of discomfort, anxiety, guilt, or stress that arise in specific situations. These emotions can be indicators of cognitive dissonance.
  3. Journal Writing:
    • Keep a journal to document instances where you experience conflicting thoughts or behaviors. Writing about these experiences can help you gain clarity and recognize patterns of dissonance.


Observation by Others

  1. Feedback from Friends and Family:
    • Seek feedback from trusted friends or family members about any observed inconsistencies in your beliefs and behaviors. Others may notice contradictions that you are unaware of.
  2. Behavioral Observation:
    • Pay attention to behaviors that others might point out as inconsistent with your stated beliefs or values. For example, if you claim to value honesty but often tell white lies, others may notice this discrepancy.


Professional Evaluation

  1. Therapist or Counselor Assessment:
    • A mental health professional can help identify cognitive dissonance through therapeutic sessions. They can ask questions to uncover conflicting beliefs and behaviors and evaluate the emotional distress associated with them.
  2. Psychological Questionnaires:
    • Professionals may use standardized questionnaires or assessment tools designed to identify cognitive dissonance and related psychological distress. These tools can provide structured insight into the presence and extent of dissonance.
  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Techniques:
    • Therapists may use cognitive-behavioral techniques to explore and address cognitive dissonance. Through guided questioning and exercises, they can help individuals recognize and resolve conflicting beliefs and behaviors.


Common Indicators of Cognitive Dissonance

  1. Rationalization:
    • Justifying behaviors or beliefs that are contradictory. For example, finding excuses for actions that go against your values.
  2. Avoidance:
    • Avoiding information or situations that increase dissonance. For example, ignoring evidence that contradicts your beliefs.
  3. Behavioral Changes:
    • Making changes in behavior to align with beliefs or vice versa. For example, quitting smoking because it conflicts with health values.
  4. Emotional Distress:
    • Experiencing negative emotions like guilt, shame, or anxiety when confronted with conflicting beliefs or behaviors.
  5. Attitude Change:
    • Changing beliefs to align with behaviors. For example, altering your view on environmental issues to justify not recycling.


Diagnosing cognitive dissonance involves recognizing the presence of conflicting beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors that cause discomfort. Self-assessment, observation by others, and professional evaluation are key methods for identifying cognitive dissonance. Understanding and addressing cognitive dissonance can lead to greater alignment between beliefs and behaviors, reducing psychological distress and promoting personal growth.

How to Help a Loved One Struggling with Cognitive Dissonance

Supporting a loved one who is experiencing cognitive dissonance can be challenging, but with empathy and understanding, you can help them navigate this psychological conflict. Cognitive dissonance occurs when a person holds conflicting beliefs or engages in behaviors that contradict their values, leading to emotional discomfort and stress. Here are some practical steps to assist them:


1. Provide Emotional Support

  • Listen Actively: Be a patient and attentive listener. Allow them to express their thoughts and feelings without judgment or interruption.
  • Show Empathy: Acknowledge their discomfort and validate their emotions. Let them know that it’s normal to feel conflicted and that you are there to support them.

2. Encourage Self-Reflection

  • Ask Open-Ended Questions: Help them explore their conflicting beliefs and behaviors by asking open-ended questions. For example, “What do you think is causing this conflict?” or “How do you feel when you think about these opposing ideas?”
  • Journal Writing: Suggest they keep a journal to document their thoughts and feelings. Writing can help clarify their thoughts and identify patterns in their cognition.

3. Promote Cognitive Consistency

  • Identify Core Values: Encourage them to reflect on their core values and beliefs. Help them identify which values are most important to them and why.
  • Align Actions with Beliefs: Discuss ways they can bring their actions in line with their core values. For example, if they value health but smoke, discuss small steps they can take towards quitting smoking.

4. Provide Information and Resources

  • Educate Gently: Share information that might help them understand cognitive dissonance better. Recommend books, articles, or videos that explain the concept and offer strategies for resolution.
  • Professional Help: Suggest seeking professional help if the dissonance is causing significant distress. A therapist or counselor trained in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can provide effective strategies to manage and reduce dissonance.

5. Be Patient and Non-Judgmental

  • Avoid Criticism: Refrain from criticizing their conflicting beliefs or behaviors. Judgment can increase their discomfort and resistance to change.
  • Offer Consistent Support: Be consistent in your support, even if progress seems slow. Change can take time, and your continued support can make a significant difference.

6. Encourage Positive Change

  • Small Steps: Encourage them to make small, manageable changes that align their behaviors with their beliefs. Small successes can build confidence and reduce dissonance over time.
  • Celebrate Progress: Acknowledge and celebrate their efforts and progress, no matter how small. Positive reinforcement can motivate further change.

7. Foster a Supportive Environment

  • Create a Safe Space: Ensure that they feel safe and supported in expressing their thoughts and feelings. A non-judgmental environment can facilitate open communication and self-exploration.
  • Offer Moral Support: Be a source of moral support, reassuring them that it’s okay to experience and work through conflicting thoughts and behaviors.


By providing emotional support, encouraging self-reflection, promoting cognitive consistency, and fostering a supportive environment, you can help your loved one navigate the challenges of cognitive dissonance. Your patience, empathy, and understanding can play a crucial role in their journey towards resolving internal conflicts and achieving cognitive harmony.


Treatment Options for Cognitive Dissonance

Addressing cognitive dissonance typically involves strategies aimed at reducing the discomfort caused by conflicting beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors. Here are some effective treatment options and approaches:


Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

  1. Cognitive Restructuring: This technique helps individuals identify and challenge irrational or conflicting beliefs. By re-evaluating these beliefs, they can develop more consistent and rational thought patterns.
  2. Behavioral Interventions: CBT often includes behavioral strategies to align actions with beliefs. For instance, if someone believes in healthy living but engages in unhealthy behaviors, the therapist might work on setting realistic goals for healthier behaviors.
  3. Exposure Therapy: For certain cases, gradual exposure to the conflicting situation can help reduce the emotional distress associated with cognitive dissonance, helping individuals to reconcile their beliefs and behaviors over time.


Motivational Interviewing (MI)

  1. Enhancing Motivation: MI is a counseling approach that helps individuals resolve ambivalence about behavior change. By exploring and resolving conflicting beliefs, individuals can find internal motivation to change behaviors that are causing dissonance.
  2. Building Confidence: MI also focuses on building self-efficacy, encouraging individuals to believe in their ability to make positive changes, thus reducing dissonance.


Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Therapies

  1. Mindfulness Practices: Mindfulness techniques help individuals become aware of their thoughts and feelings without judgment. This awareness can reduce the immediate discomfort of cognitive dissonance and provide space to consider new perspectives.
  2. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT): ACT encourages individuals to accept their conflicting thoughts and feelings while committing to actions that align with their values. This approach reduces the struggle against dissonance and promotes psychological flexibility.



  1. Understanding Cognitive Dissonance: Educating individuals about the nature of cognitive dissonance can help them recognize when they are experiencing it and understand why it occurs. This awareness can be the first step toward addressing the dissonance.
  2. Problem-Solving Skills: Teaching problem-solving skills can help individuals develop strategies to address and resolve conflicts between their beliefs and behaviors.


Support Groups and Counseling

  1. Peer Support: Joining support groups where individuals share similar experiences can provide a sense of community and reduce feelings of isolation. Hearing how others have resolved their cognitive dissonance can offer practical insights and encouragement.
  2. Individual Counseling: One-on-one counseling can provide personalized strategies to address cognitive dissonance. A counselor can help an individual explore their specific conflicts and develop tailored approaches to resolve them.


Self-Reflection and Journaling

  1. Reflective Writing: Encouraging individuals to keep a journal can help them articulate their conflicting beliefs and behaviors. Writing about their experiences can provide clarity and facilitate the resolution of dissonance.
  2. Self-Assessment: Regular self-assessment and reflection on personal values, goals, and behaviors can help individuals identify areas of dissonance and take proactive steps to address them.


Behavioral Change Techniques

  1. Gradual Behavior Modification: Gradually changing behaviors that cause dissonance, rather than attempting abrupt changes, can make the process more manageable and sustainable.
  2. Positive Reinforcement: Reinforcing positive behaviors that align with one’s beliefs can help reduce dissonance and promote consistency between actions and values.


Treating cognitive dissonance involves a combination of therapeutic techniques, educational strategies, and behavioral interventions. By addressing the underlying conflicts between beliefs and behaviors, individuals can reduce the discomfort associated with cognitive dissonance and achieve greater psychological harmony.



Cognitive dissonance theory provides a compelling framework for understanding the cognitive consequences of holding contradictory ideas and engaging in behaviors that contradict one’s beliefs. Whether it’s the tension a person feels when their behavior contradicts their self-perception, such as an honest person telling a lie, or the guilt experienced from forced compliance situations, cognitive dissonance is a powerful force in shaping human behavior. As Festinger argued, people strive to reduce cognitive dissonance through various means, from changing one’s beliefs to justifying great effort expended. By understanding this psychological phenomenon, we can better navigate the complexities of perception and behavior in everyday life. From the discomfort felt by those who smoke despite knowing the risks to the moral support needed to reconcile conflicting cognition, cognitive dissonance remains a trending topic in social psychology, influencing how we cope with and resolve internal conflicts.


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Cognitive Dissonance

Frequently Asked Questions

Cognitive dissonance is a psychological phenomenon where an individual experiences mental discomfort or stress due to holding two or more contradictory beliefs, values, or attitudes simultaneously. This discomfort often leads people to change one of the conflicting beliefs, acquire new information, or reduce the importance of the conflicting belief to achieve consistency.

Common examples of cognitive dissonance include:

    • A person who smokes despite knowing the health risks.
    • An employee who dislikes their job but continues to work there due to financial necessity.
    • A consumer who experiences buyer’s remorse after making an expensive purchase.
    • A person who advocates for environmental conservation but uses plastic products frequently.
Cognitive dissonance can lead to emotional discomfort, stress, and anxiety. Prolonged or intense dissonance can contribute to mental health issues such as anxiety disorders, depression, and stress-related illnesses. It can also exacerbate conditions like obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by increasing internal conflict and emotional turmoil.

The main strategies for reducing cognitive dissonance include:

    • Changing the conflicting behavior to align with one’s beliefs.
    • Modifying or changing the conflicting belief to match the behavior.
    • Acquiring new information that justifies the behavior or belief.
    • Reducing the importance of the conflicting belief or behavior.
    • Seeking support from others or engaging in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to address and resolve the dissonance.
Yes, cognitive dissonance can be beneficial. It can motivate individuals to make positive changes in their lives, such as adopting healthier habits, improving decision-making, and aligning actions with personal values. The discomfort caused by cognitive dissonance can act as a catalyst for self-reflection and personal growth, leading to more consistent and authentic behaviors and beliefs.

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