Table of Contents

Comprehensive Guide to Modafinil: Uses, Effects & Safety Tips


Clinically Reviewed by: Dr. Robin Campbell, LMFT, PHD

What is Modafinil?

In today’s fast-paced world, the struggle to balance work, personal life, and health can often lead to chronic fatigue and excessive sleepiness. For those grappling with such challenges, modafinil emerges as a beacon of hope, offering relief from the burden of lethargy and drowsiness. However, navigating the landscape of prescription medications like modafinil requires a comprehensive understanding of its benefits, risks, and proper usage.

What is Modafinil?

Modafinil is a medication primarily used to improve wakefulness and alertness in individuals with conditions such as narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea. It belongs to a class of drugs known as eugeroics, which are substances that promote wakefulness.

Though its precise mechanism of action isn’t fully understood, modafinil is believed to work by affecting certain neurotransmitters in the brain, particularly dopamine, which plays a key role in regulating wakefulness and sleep.

It’s worth noting that while modafinil has been prescribed off-label for conditions like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression, its use for these purposes is still under investigation, and it’s important to consult a healthcare professional before using it for anything other than its approved indications. Additionally, modafinil is a controlled substance in many countries due to its potential for misuse and dependence.


Modafinil Types and Dosages

Modafinil is available in several brand-name and generic formulations, with varying dosages. The most common brand-name version is Provigil. Dosages typically range from 100 mg to 200 mg per tablet, although there are variations depending on the specific formulation and manufacturer.


Here are some common dosages:

  1. Modafinil 100 mg tablets: This is a lower dosage often prescribed for individuals with conditions like narcolepsy or obstructive sleep apnea. It may also be used off-label for other purposes.
  2. Modafinil 200 mg tablets: This is a standard dosage and is often prescribed for conditions like narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea.

Dosages may vary based on individual response and the condition being treated. It’s important to follow the dosage instructions provided by a healthcare professional and to avoid exceeding the recommended dose without medical supervision. Additionally, modafinil should typically be taken in the morning to avoid interfering with nighttime sleep.


Modafinil Uses

Modafinil has several approved and off-label uses:

  1. Approved Uses:
    • Narcolepsy: Modafinil is FDA-approved for the treatment of narcolepsy, a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden attacks of sleep.
    • Obstructive Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS): Modafinil is also approved for the treatment of OSAHS, a condition where breathing is interrupted during sleep, leading to daytime sleepiness.
    • Shift Work Sleep Disorder (SWSD): Modafinil is indicated for SWSD, a condition characterized by sleep disturbances and excessive sleepiness in people who work non-traditional hours.
  2. Off-label Uses:
    • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): While not FDA-approved for ADHD, modafinil is sometimes prescribed off-label to help improve attention, focus, and impulse control in individuals with ADHD who do not respond well to traditional medications.
    • Enhancing Cognitive Function: Some people use modafinil off-label to enhance cognitive function, improve productivity, and increase alertness, particularly in professions requiring long periods of concentration or shift work.
    • Depression: There is some research suggesting that modafinil may have antidepressant effects, although it’s not FDA-approved for this purpose.
    • Binge Eating Disorder (BED): Modafinil has been studied as a potential treatment for BED, although its efficacy for this indication is still under investigation.
    • Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis (MS): Modafinil may be used off-label to alleviate fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis, although more research is needed to establish its effectiveness.
    • Jet Lag: Some individuals use modafinil off-label to reduce the symptoms of jet lag and adjust to new time zones more quickly.


How Long Does Modafinil Stay in Your System?

The duration of action and elimination half-life of modafinil can vary among individuals, but in general, modafinil has a relatively long half-life, typically ranging from 10 to 15 hours. This means that it takes approximately that amount of time for half of the drug to be eliminated from the body.

However, it’s important to note that individual factors such as age, liver function, kidney function, metabolism, and other medications being taken can influence how long modafinil stays in the system. In some cases, it may take longer for modafinil to be completely cleared from the body.

As a rough estimate, it may take around two to four days for modafinil to be fully eliminated from the system after the last dose. However, this can vary and should not be used as a precise guideline for all individuals. If you have concerns about modafinil staying in your system, it’s best to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice.


How Long is Modafinil Detectable in Your System?

The detectability of modafinil in the body depends on various factors, including the type of drug test being used, the sensitivity of the test method, individual metabolism, dosage, and frequency of use. Here are some general estimates:

  1. Urine: Modafinil can typically be detected in urine for up to one to three days after the last dose. However, this detection window may vary depending on factors such as the individual’s metabolism and the sensitivity of the testing method.
  2. Blood: Modafinil is usually detectable in blood for a shorter period compared to urine, typically up to 12 to 24 hours after the last dose.
  3. Saliva: Modafinil can be detected in saliva for a similar duration as blood, typically up to 12 to 24 hours after the last dose.
  4. Hair: Modafinil can potentially be detected in hair follicles for a much longer period, as traces of the drug may remain in hair for several months to years after use.


How Does Modafinil Work in the Brain and Body?

Modafinil’s precise mechanism of action isn’t fully understood, but it is believed to affect various neurotransmitter systems in the brain, particularly dopamine. Here’s a breakdown of how modafinil works in the brain and body:

  1. Dopamine: Modafinil increases the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with wakefulness, motivation, reward, and cognitive function. By enhancing dopamine levels, modafinil promotes wakefulness and alertness.
  2. Histamine: Modafinil increases histamine levels in the brain, which also contributes to its wake-promoting effects. Histamine is involved in regulating the sleep-wake cycle and promoting wakefulness.
  3. Norepinephrine: Modafinil increases the levels of norepinephrine, another neurotransmitter involved in arousal, attention, and stress response. This may contribute to modafinil’s ability to enhance alertness and cognitive function.
  4. Glutamate: Modafinil affects glutamate transmission in the brain, although the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter involved in various cognitive processes, including learning and memory.
  5. GABA: Modafinil may also modulate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission, although the effects are less clear. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and is involved in regulating neuronal excitability and anxiety.

Overall, modafinil’s effects on neurotransmitter systems lead to increased wakefulness, alertness, and cognitive function. By targeting multiple pathways involved in arousal and cognition, modafinil is able to promote wakefulness without the same degree of stimulation or side effects as traditional stimulant medications. However, further research is needed to fully understand modafinil’s mechanism of action and its effects on brain function.


Modafinil Effects on the Body

Modafinil has various effects on the body, primarily due to its actions on neurotransmitter systems in the brain. Here are some of the key effects:

  1. Wakefulness and Alertness: Modafinil promotes wakefulness and alertness, making it useful for conditions like narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea. It helps individuals stay awake and alert during the day, reducing excessive daytime sleepiness.
  2. Improved Cognitive Function: Modafinil is associated with enhancements in cognitive function, including improved attention, focus, memory, and executive function. It may help individuals think more clearly and perform better on tasks requiring mental acuity.
  3. Reduced Fatigue: Modafinil can reduce fatigue and increase energy levels, allowing individuals to function more effectively throughout the day. This effect is particularly beneficial for people with conditions characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness or fatigue.
  4. Mood Enhancement: Some individuals may experience mood enhancement or feelings of well-being when taking modafinil. It may improve motivation, mood, and overall sense of alertness and vitality.
  5. Appetite Suppression: Modafinil can reduce appetite in some individuals, leading to decreased food intake. This effect may contribute to its potential use in weight management or as a treatment for binge eating disorder.
  6. Increased Heart Rate and Blood Pressure: Modafinil may cause a modest increase in heart rate and blood pressure in some individuals. This effect is generally mild and well-tolerated but may be of concern for people with pre-existing cardiovascular conditions.
  7. Potential Side Effects: While modafinil is generally well-tolerated, it can cause side effects in some individuals, including headache, nausea, nervousness, insomnia, and dry mouth. Serious side effects such as allergic reactions and psychiatric symptoms are rare but can occur.

Overall, modafinil has a range of effects on the body, primarily centered around promoting wakefulness, enhancing cognitive function, and reducing fatigue. These effects make it a valuable medication for the treatment of certain sleep disorders and conditions associated with excessive daytime sleepiness or fatigue. However, it’s important to use modafinil under the guidance of a healthcare professional and to be aware of potential side effects and safety considerations.


Modafinil Efficacy

The efficacy of modafinil has been well-documented in several clinical studies and real-world applications. Here are some key points regarding its efficacy:

  1. Narcolepsy: Modafinil is highly effective in treating the excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy. Clinical trials have shown significant improvements in wakefulness, alertness, and overall quality of life in individuals with narcolepsy who take modafinil.
  2. Shift Work Sleep Disorder (SWSD): Modafinil has demonstrated efficacy in improving wakefulness and reducing sleepiness in individuals with SWSD, allowing them to function more effectively during non-traditional work hours.
  3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS): Studies have shown that modafinil can help alleviate excessive daytime sleepiness in individuals with OSAHS, although it may be less effective compared to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, which is the standard treatment for OSAHS.
  4. Cognitive Enhancement: Modafinil has been shown to enhance cognitive function in various populations, including healthy individuals and those with cognitive impairment. It can improve attention, memory, executive function, and decision-making abilities, making it useful for tasks requiring sustained mental effort.
  5. Off-label Uses: While not approved for certain conditions, modafinil has shown promise in off-label uses such as ADHD, depression, binge eating disorder, and fatigue associated with conditions like multiple sclerosis. However, more research is needed to fully establish its efficacy for these purposes.


Modafinil Side Effects 

Modafinil, like any medication, can potentially cause both short-term and long-term side effects. Here’s an overview of the possible side effects:

Short-term side effects:

  1. Headache: One of the most common short-term side effects of modafinil is headache, which can range from mild to severe.
  2. Nausea: Some individuals may experience nausea or gastrointestinal discomfort shortly after taking modafinil.
  3. Insomnia: Despite being a wakefulness-promoting agent, modafinil can cause difficulty sleeping, especially if taken too late in the day.
  4. Nervousness or Anxiety: Modafinil may increase feelings of nervousness or anxiety in some people.
  5. Dry Mouth: Dry mouth is another common short-term side effect of modafinil.
  6. Dizziness: Some individuals may experience dizziness or lightheadedness when taking modafinil.
  7. Palpitations or Increased Heart Rate: Modafinil can cause a slight increase in heart rate or palpitations in some individuals.
  8. Loss of Appetite: Modafinil may suppress appetite in some people, leading to decreased food intake.
  9. Psychiatric Symptoms: In rare cases, modafinil may cause psychiatric side effects such as agitation, irritability, hallucinations, or mood changes.
  10. Allergic Reactions: Although rare, modafinil can cause allergic reactions such as rash, itching, swelling, or difficulty breathing.
  11. Unusual or Allergic Reaction: Notify your doctor if you experience any unusual or allergic reactions to the medicine or any other medicines.

Long-term side effects:

  1. Tolerance: Long-term use of modafinil may lead to tolerance, where higher doses are needed to achieve the same effects.
  2. Dependence: Although modafinil has a lower risk of dependence compared to traditional stimulants, long-term use can still lead to psychological dependence in some individuals.
  3. Withdrawal Symptoms: Abrupt discontinuation of modafinil after long-term use may lead to withdrawal symptoms such as fatigue, depression, irritability, and difficulty concentrating.
  4. Cardiovascular Effects: There is some concern that long-term use of modafinil may have cardiovascular effects, such as increased blood pressure or heart rate, although more research is needed to fully understand these risks.
  5. Psychiatric Effects: Long-term use of modafinil may increase the risk of psychiatric side effects such as anxiety, agitation, or mood disturbances in some individuals.

It’s important to note that not everyone will experience these side effects, and many people tolerate modafinil well. However, if you’re considering long-term use of modafinil or experiencing any discomfort while taking it, be sure to discuss your concerns with your healthcare provider. They can provide guidance on managing side effects or adjusting your treatment plan if necessary.


Is Modafinil Addictive? 

Modafinil has a lower risk of addiction and dependence compared to traditional stimulant medications such as amphetamines or methylphenidate. However, it is not entirely devoid of potential for misuse or dependence.

Here’s what you need to know about modafinil and addiction:

  1. Low Potential for Addiction: Modafinil is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance in the United States, indicating a relatively low potential for abuse and dependence compared to drugs in higher schedules. This is because modafinil does not produce the same euphoric effects or intense “high” associated with stimulants like amphetamines.
  2. Psychological Dependence: While modafinil is less likely to cause physical dependence, some individuals may develop psychological dependence on the drug, especially if they come to rely on it to stay awake or enhance cognitive performance. This can lead to cravings and difficulty functioning without the medication.
  3. Tolerance: With prolonged use, some individuals may develop tolerance to the effects of modafinil, requiring higher doses to achieve the same level of wakefulness or cognitive enhancement. Tolerance can contribute to the risk of misuse or dependence if higher doses are sought after.
  4. Withdrawal Symptoms: Abrupt discontinuation of modafinil after long-term use may lead to withdrawal symptoms such as fatigue, depression, irritability, and difficulty concentrating. These symptoms are typically mild and short-lived but can contribute to the cycle of dependence in some individuals.
  5. Individual Variability: It’s important to recognize that individual responses to modafinil can vary, and while many people use the medication safely and responsibly, others may be more susceptible to misuse or dependence.

Overall, while modafinil has a lower risk of addiction compared to traditional stimulants, it’s still important to use the medication as directed and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. If you have concerns about the potential for addiction or dependence, discuss them with your healthcare provider. They can provide guidance on safe and appropriate use of modafinil for your specific needs.


Can You Overdose on Modafinil?

While modafinil is generally considered to have a low risk of overdose when taken as prescribed, it is still possible to overdose on modafinil, particularly if taken in excessive doses. Overdose can occur when someone takes significantly more than the recommended dose of modafinil, either intentionally or accidentally.

Symptoms of modafinil overdose may include:

  • Severe agitation or anxiety
  • Rapid heartbeat or palpitations
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Insomnia or difficulty sleeping
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Hallucinations or psychosis
  • Seizures (rare)

If you suspect that you or someone else has overdosed on modafinil, it’s important to seek medical attention immediately. Call emergency services or go to the nearest emergency room for evaluation and treatment.

Treatment for modafinil overdose typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms. This may include monitoring vital signs, administering medications to reduce agitation or anxiety, and providing fluids if dehydration occurs. In severe cases, additional interventions such as activated charcoal or gastric lavage may be considered to reduce absorption of the drug.

To minimize the risk of overdose, it’s crucial to take modafinil exactly as prescribed by a healthcare professional and to avoid taking more than the recommended dose. Never share modafinil with others, and keep it out of reach of children and pets. If you have any concerns about modafinil or its use, discuss them with your healthcare provider.


Alcohol Use and Modafinil

It’s generally advised to avoid alcohol while taking modafinil. Alcohol can increase the risk of certain side effects such as dizziness, drowsiness, and impaired judgment, which may be exacerbated when combined with modafinil. Additionally, alcohol consumption may reduce the effectiveness of modafinil in promoting wakefulness and cognitive function. If you’re taking modafinil, it’s best to avoid alcohol or limit your alcohol intake and consult with your healthcare provider for personalized advice.


Modafinil and Pregnancy

Modafinil is not recommended for use during pregnancy due to limited data on its safety in pregnant women. Animal studies have shown adverse effects on fetal development when modafinil is administered during pregnancy, including increased rates of fetal malformations and reduced fetal weight.

Additionally, modafinil passes into breast milk, so it’s also generally recommended to avoid using modafinil while breastfeeding.

If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, it’s essential to discuss any medications you’re taking with your healthcare provider. They can provide guidance on the potential risks and benefits of continuing or discontinuing modafinil during pregnancy and offer alternative treatment options if necessary. Your healthcare provider will consider your individual circumstances and medical history to make the best decision for you and your baby’s health.


Modafinil Storage and Disposal

Store modafinil at room temperature, away from moisture and heat, and out of reach of children and pets. Avoid storing it in the bathroom or kitchen, where it might be exposed to moisture or heat fluctuations.

When disposing of modafinil, follow any specific instructions provided by your healthcare provider or pharmacist. Dispose of unused or expired medication properly, following local regulations or guidelines. This may include returning it to a pharmacy or using a medication take-back program. Do not flush modafinil down the toilet or pour it down the drain unless instructed to do so.


Modafinil Interaction with Other Medications

Modafinil can interact with certain medications, potentially affecting their effectiveness or increasing the risk of side effects. Here are some medications that may interact with modafinil:

  1. CYP3A4 Inducers and Inhibitors: Modafinil is metabolized by the liver enzyme CYP3A4. Drugs that induce or inhibit CYP3A4 activity can affect the metabolism of modafinil and may alter its blood levels. Examples of CYP3A4 inducers include rifampin, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital, while inhibitors include ketoconazole, clarithromycin, and ritonavir.
  2. Hormonal Contraceptives: Modafinil may reduce the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives such as birth control pills, patches, or implants. Women taking hormonal contraceptives should use alternative or additional forms of contraception while using modafinil and for at least one month after discontinuing it.
  3. Anticoagulants: Modafinil may interact with anticoagulant medications such as warfarin, potentially altering their effects on blood clotting. Regular monitoring of blood clotting parameters may be necessary when modafinil is used concomitantly with anticoagulants.
  4. CNS Stimulants: Combining modafinil with other central nervous system (CNS) stimulants such as amphetamines or methylphenidate may increase the risk of adverse effects such as increased heart rate, blood pressure, or agitation.
  5. Antidepressants: Modafinil may interact with certain antidepressant medications, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), increasing the risk of serotonin syndrome—a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by symptoms such as agitation, hallucinations, rapid heart rate, and elevated body temperature.
  6. Caffeine: Combining modafinil with caffeine or other stimulants may increase the risk of overstimulation and adverse effects such as insomnia, anxiety, or palpitations.

These are not all the possible interactions of modafinil. It’s essential to inform your healthcare provider about all medications, supplements, and herbal products you’re taking before starting modafinil. Your healthcare provider can help determine if any potential interactions exist and adjust your treatment plan accordingly.


Modafinil Controlled Substance Classification

Modafinil is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance in the United States. This classification indicates that while modafinil has a lower potential for abuse and dependence compared to drugs in higher schedules, it still carries a risk of misuse and should be used with caution. As a Schedule IV controlled substance, modafinil is subject to regulations regarding its prescription, dispensing, and use to help prevent its misuse and diversion.


Treatment Options

Sleep Disorders:

  • Narcolepsy: Stimulant medications like modafinil, sodium oxybate, or methylphenidate may be prescribed to promote wakefulness.
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS): Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is the primary treatment for OSAHS. Modafinil or other wakefulness-promoting agents may be prescribed to reduce daytime sleepiness.
  • Shift Work Sleep Disorder (SWSD): Modafinil or other wakefulness-promoting agents may be prescribed to improve wakefulness and alertness during night shifts.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD):

  • Stimulant Medications: Drugs like methylphenidate or amphetamines are commonly used to manage ADHD symptoms by increasing dopamine and norepinephrine levels in the brain.
  • Non-Stimulant Medications: Options like atomoxetine or guanfacine may be prescribed for individuals who cannot tolerate stimulants or have certain contraindications.


  • Antidepressant Medications: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), or other antidepressants may be prescribed based on the individual’s symptoms and medical history.
  • Psychotherapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy (IPT), or other forms of psychotherapy may be recommended either alone or in combination with medication.

Binge Eating Disorder (BED):

  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): Drugs like fluoxetine or sertraline may be prescribed to help reduce binge eating episodes and improve mood.
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT): Psychotherapy approaches like CBT are often used to address the underlying behaviors and thoughts associated with binge eating.

Fatigue Associated with Chronic Conditions:

  • Medication Management: Medications like modafinil or methylphenidate may be prescribed to improve wakefulness and reduce fatigue.
  • Lifestyle Modifications: Strategies such as improving sleep hygiene, incorporating regular exercise, and managing stress may also help alleviate fatigue.

Does Insurance Cover Modafinil Addiction Treatment?

Insurance coverage for modafinil addiction treatment may vary depending on factors such as the individual’s insurance plan, the specific treatment facility or program, and the type of treatment needed. Here are some points to consider:

  1. Insurance Plans: Different insurance plans may offer varying levels of coverage for addiction treatment, including coverage for modafinil addiction. Some plans may cover all or part of the cost of treatment, while others may have limitations or exclusions.
  2. Treatment Facilities: The type of treatment facility or program chosen can also affect insurance coverage. Inpatient rehab facilities, outpatient programs, therapy sessions, and medication-assisted treatment may have different coverage options.
  3. Medical Necessity: Insurance coverage for modafinil addiction treatment may be contingent on the determination of medical necessity. This typically involves an assessment by a healthcare provider or addiction specialist to determine the appropriate level of care needed based on the individual’s condition and treatment goals.
  4. Pre-authorization Requirements: Some insurance plans may require pre-authorization or pre-certification before covering certain types of addiction treatment. This means that the treatment provider must obtain approval from the insurance company before services are rendered.
  5. Out-of-Pocket Costs: Even with insurance coverage, individuals may still be responsible for out-of-pocket costs such as copayments, coinsurance, deductibles, and any costs associated with services that are not covered by insurance.



In conclusion, modafinil stands as a powerful tool in the arsenal against excessive sleepiness and fatigue caused by conditions like narcolepsy, sleep apnea, and shift work disorder. Its efficacy in enhancing wakefulness and cognitive function is supported by clinical evidence from randomized controlled trials. However, like any prescription medication, modafinil carries potential risks, including serious skin reactions, allergic reactions, and interactions with other drugs. Therefore, it is crucial to approach modafinil therapy with caution and under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional. By adhering to prescribed dosages, monitoring for adverse effects, and maintaining open communication with your doctor or pharmacist, individuals can harness the benefits of modafinil while minimizing the likelihood of complications. Ultimately, with proper education and vigilance, modafinil can serve as a valuable ally in the pursuit of improved wakefulness, productivity, and overall well-being.


Seeking Treatment? We Can Help!

At New Hope Healthcare, as an in-network provider we work with most insurance plans, such as:


If you or a loved one are struggling with mental health challenges or substance abuse, reach out to New Hope Healthcare today. Our team of compassionate professionals is here to support your journey towards lasting well-being. Give us a call at 866-799-0806


Frequently Asked Questions

Modafinil is a medication primarily used to treat excessive sleepiness caused by conditions such as narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea, and shift work sleep disorder. It works by increasing levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, promoting wakefulness and alertness.
Common side effects of modafinil include headache, nausea, nervousness, insomnia, dry mouth, and dizziness. Serious side effects such as chest pain, irregular heartbeat, severe skin reactions, and allergic reactions are rare but possible and require immediate medical attention.
While modafinil is not approved for the treatment of mental illnesses such as depression or bipolar disorder, it has been studied as a potential adjunctive therapy in some cases. However, its efficacy and safety for these uses are still being evaluated.
Modafinil can interact with other medications, including hormonal contraceptives, anticoagulants, antidepressants, and certain stimulants. It’s important to inform your doctor about all medications you’re taking to avoid potential interactions.
Modafinil is typically taken orally, once daily in the morning or as directed by your doctor. It can be taken with or without food. It’s essential to follow your prescription label and your doctor’s instructions carefully. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember, but avoid taking it late in the day to prevent insomnia.

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